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Sample imageMikulov was founded by an ancient Viennese path from south to north. The original settlement was a little aside, in the place of the present “Česká” street. The present town centre with the square below the chateau hill only originates form the 13th century colonisation period. The original square was a conically widening street with a marketplace (in 1279 Mikulov was granted the privilege of holding weekly markets), situated in the southern part of the present Square and reaching as far as the present “Vídeňská” street. Houses were only built along the perimeter of the marketplace and all houses were made of timber. The present ground plan, with the regular shape of the square with St. Venceslas´ church in the northern corner is the result of the fundamental reconstruction of the town following the large fire in 1584. The thoughtful project resulted in a shopping street on the way to the chateau with large burger houses, and the town hall and the Loretan church of St. Anne. The whole town centre was shifted to north-east. The new houses were built of brick and stone. The oldest preserved house cores in the square come from renaissance, the period when the abovementioned new town was built. The original houses are not preserved, even though respecting the original mediaeval plots can be assumed in some places. The original idea probably was to surround the whole square with an archway allowing for undisturbed walking in bad weather. However, the intention was only implemented in the house front adjacent to the chateau hill.

The appearance of the town was significantly affected by the destructive fire on 14 September 1784, destroying over 350 houses. The cause was lack of carefulness of a cook in the bank office building, where hot fat ignited the muckheap of the neighbouring post office (there was the town hall of the other side). The most severely affected house was St. Anne ´s Church, only in the middle of the following century transformed to the Dietrichstein family sepulchre, and the adjacent Capuchin monastery, transformed later to residential houses. The fire, despite the quick reconstruction of the damaged houses, changed the appearance of the southern part of the square completely into the present shape.

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